1000PA

| 1000 Prehistorc Animals | Dinosaurs, Fossils, Ruins | Articles and News |

  • Home
  • Anthropology
  • Archaeology
  • Evolution

    • Evolution / Charles Darwin

      Life on Earth evolved from a universal common ancestor approximately 3.8 billion years ago...

  • Paleontology

Sun06252017

Last update04:28:52 PM GMT

Back Evolution Evolution

Evolution

Did bone ease acid for early land crawlers?

1000pa (Apr. 24, 2012) — In a new paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, scientists propose that the bony structures in the skin of many early four-legged creatures might have been there to relieve acid buildup in bodily fluids. Analysis of their anatomy suggests that as they ventured out of water, the animals would have had trouble getting rid of enough CO2 to prevent acid buildup.

Here's an anatomical packing list for making that historic trip from water to land circa 370 million years ago: Lungs? Check. Legs? Check. Patches of highly vascular bone in the skin? In a new paper, scientists propose why many of the earliest four-legged creatures that dared breathe on land carried bony skin features.

The...

Diversity aided mammals’ survival over deep time

1000pa (Apr. 23, 2012) — When it comes to adapting to climate change, diversity is the mammal's best defense. That is one of the conclusions of the first study of how mammals in North America adapted to climate change in "deep time" -- a period of 56 million years beginning with the Eocene and ending 12,000 years ago with the terminal Pleistocene extinction when mammoths, saber-toothed tigers, giant sloths and most of the other "megafauna" on the continent disappeared.

"Before...

How ancient viruses became genomic 'superspreaders'

1000pa (Apr. 23, 2012) — Scientists have uncovered clues as to how our genomes became riddled with viruses. The study, supported by the Wellcome Trust, reveals important information about the so-called 'dark matter' of our genome.

For years scientists have been struggling with the enigma that more than 90 percent of every mammal's genome has no known function. A part of this 'dark matter' of genetic material is known to harbour pieces of DNA from ancient viruses that infected...

Evolutionary history of what mammals eat: Some groups of mammals have changed their feeding strategies over time

1000pa (Apr. 16, 2012) — The feeding habits of mammals haven't always been what they are today, particularly for omnivores, finds a new study. Some groups of mammals almost exclusively eat meat -- take lions and tigers and other big cats, for example. Other mammals such as deer, cows and antelope are predominantly plant-eaters, living on a diet of leaves, shoots, fruits and bark. But particularly for omnivores that live on plant foods in addition to meat, the situation wasn't always that...

Genetic adaptation of fat metabolism key to development of human brain

1000pa (Apr. 12, 2012) — About 300,000 years ago humans adapted genetically to be able to produce larger amounts of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids. This adaptation may have been crucial to the development of the unique brain capacity in modern humans. In today’s life situation, this genetic adaptation contributes instead to a higher risk of developing disorders like cardiovascular disease.
 
The human nervous system and brain contain large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty...

Duck-billed dinosaurs endured long, dark polar winters

1000pa (Apr. 11, 2012) — Duck-billed dinosaurs that lived within Arctic latitudes approximately 70 million years ago likely endured long, dark polar winters instead of migrating to more southern latitudes, a recent study by researchers from the University of Cape Town, Museum of Nature and Science in Dallas and Temple University has found.

The researchers published their findings, "Hadrosaurs Were Perennial Polar Residents," in the April issue of the journal The Anatomical...

What triggers a mass extinction? Habitat loss and tropical cooling were once to blame

1000pa (Apr. 10, 2012) — The second-largest mass extinction in Earth's history coincided with a short but intense ice age during which enormous glaciers grew and sea levels dropped. Although it has long been agreed that the so-called Late Ordovician mass extinction -- which occurred about 450 million years ago -- was related to climate change, exactly how the climate change produced the extinction has not been known. Now, a team led by scientists at the California Institute of Technology...

Picky females promote diversity

1000pa (Apr. 1, 2012) — Picky females play a critical role in the survival and diversity of species, according to a Nature study by researchers from the University of British Columbia and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Austria.

To date, biodiversity theories have focused on the role played by adaptations to the environment: the species best equipped to cope with a habitat would win out, while others would gradually go extinct. The new study...

Organics probably formed easily in early solar system

1000pa (Mar. 30, 2012) — Complex organic compounds, including many important to life on Earth, were readily produced under conditions that likely prevailed in the primordial solar system. Scientists at the University of Chicago and NASA Ames Research Center came to this conclusion after linking computer simulations to laboratory experiments.

Fred Ciesla, assistant professor in geophysical sciences at UChicago, simulated the dynamics of the solar nebula, the cloud of gas and dust...

Crocodiles trump T. rex as heavyweight bite-force champions, new study shows

1000pa (Mar. 30, 2012) — Paul M. Gignac, Ph.D., Instructor of Research, Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, and colleagues at Florida State University and in California and Australia, found in a study of all 23 living crocodilian species that crocodiles can kill with the strongest bite force measured for any living animal. The study also revealed that the bite forces of the largest extinct crocodilians exceeded 23,000 pounds, a force two-times...

Scientists reveal genetic mutation depicted in van Gogh's sunflower paintings

1000pa (Mar. 29, 2012) — In addition to being among his most vibrant and celebrated works, Vincent van Gogh's series of sunflower paintings also depict a mutation whose genetic basis has, until now, been a bit of a mystery.

In a study published March 29 in the journal PLoS Genetics, however, a team of University of Georgia scientists reveals the mutation behind the distinctive, thick bands of yellow "double flowers" that the post-Impressionist artist painted more than 100 years...

Odd lipid out may illuminate evolution

1000pa (Mar. 28, 2012) — Spectroscopic evidence for the unusual handedness of a mammalian lipid may advance our understanding of evolution.

Phospholipids are the main constituents of the cellular membranes in all organisms, ranging from single-celled archaea to highly complex plants and mammals. According to conventional wisdom, the chemical backbone of phospholipids in archaea is 'right-handed', but left-handed in all other organisms. The little-understood mammalian...

The Black Queen Hypothesis: Basis of a new evolutionary theory

1000pa (Mar. 27, 2012) — Microorganisms can sometimes lose the ability to perform a function that appears to be necessary for their survival, and yet they still somehow manage to endure and multiply. How can this be? The authors of an opinion piece appearing in mBio®, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, on March 27 explain their ideas about the matter. They say microbes that shed necessary functions are getting others to do the hard work for them, an...

Huge hamsters and pint-sized porcupines thrive on islands: Researchers test 'island rule' of rodent evolution

1000pa (Mar. 23, 2012) — From miniature elephants to monster mice, and even Hobbit-sized humans, size changes in island animals are well-known to science. Biologists have long believed that large animals evolving on islands tend to get smaller, while small animals tend to get bigger, a generalization they call "the island rule."

A new study by researchers at Duke University and the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center in Durham, N.C. puts that old idea to the test in island...

Tiny teeth of long-extinct vertebrate – with tips only two micrometers across -- are sharpest dental structures ever

1000pa (Mar. 14, 2012) — The tiny teeth of a long-extinct vertebrate -- with tips only two micrometres across: one twentieth the width of a human hair -- are the sharpest dental structures ever measured, new research from the University of Bristol and Monash University, Australia has found.

For 300 million years, Earth's oceans teemed with conodonts -- early vertebrates that kept their skeleton in their mouth. The elements of this skeleton look uncannily like teeth (see image)...

Two new species of horned dinosaur named

1000pa (Mar. 12, 2012) — Two new horned dinosaurs have been named based on fossils collected from Alberta, Canada. The new species, Unescopceratops koppelhusae and Gryphoceratops morrisoni, are from the Leptoceratopsidae family of horned dinosaurs. The herbivores lived during the Late Cretaceous period between 75 to 83 million years ago. The specimens are described in research published in the Jan. 24, 2012, online issue of the journal Cretaceous Research.

"These dinosaurs fill...

Extensive taste loss found in mammals: Feeding preferences shaped by taste receptors

1000pa (Mar. 12, 2012) — Scientists from the Monell Center report that seven of 12 related mammalian species have lost the sense of sweet taste. As each of the sweet-blind species eats only meat, the findings demonstrate that a liking for sweets is frequently lost during the evolution of diet specialization.

Previous research from the Monell team had revealed the remarkable finding that both domestic and wild cats are unable to taste sweet compounds due to defects in a gene that...

Multiple species of seacows once coexisted

1000pa (Mar. 8, 2012) — Sirenians, or seacows, are a group of marine mammals that include manatees and dugongs; today, only one species of seacow is found in each world region. Smithsonian scientists have discovered that this was not always the case. According to the fossil record of these marine mammals, which dates back 50 million years ago, it was more common to find three, or possibly more, different species of seacows living together at one time. This suggests that the environment...

Iridescent, feathered dinosaur offers fresh evidence that feathers evolved to attract mates

1000pa (Mar. 8, 2012) — A team of American and Chinese researchers has revealed the detailed feather pattern and color of Microraptor, a pigeon-sized, four-winged dinosaur that lived about 120 million years ago. A new specimen shows the dinosaur had a glossy iridescent sheen and that its tail was narrow and adorned with a pair of streamer feathers, suggesting the importance of display in the early evolution of feathers, as presented in the March 9 edition of the journal...

Oldest organism with skeleton discovered in Australia

1000pa (Mar. 8, 2012) — A team of paleontologists has discovered the oldest animal with a skeleton. Called Coronacollina acula, the organism is between 560 million and 550 million years old, which places it in the Ediacaran period, before the explosion of life and diversification of organisms took place on Earth in the Cambrian.

The finding provides insight into the evolution of life -- particularly, early life -- on the planet, why animals go extinct, and how organisms respond...

Oldest fossilized forest: Entire fossil forest dating back 385 million years unearthed

1000pa (Feb. 29, 2012) — An international team, including a Cardiff University researcher who previously found evidence of Earth's earliest tree, has gone one step further.

The research team has now unearthed and investigated an entire fossil forest dating back 385 million years.

The Gilboa fossil forest, in the Catskill Mountains in upstate New York, is generally referred to as 'the oldest fossil forest'. Yet by scientific standards it has remained mythical.

Fossils...

First Bird

First Bird
What was the earliest known bird?

Unexplained artifacts

unexplained artifacts
The 10 most amazing unexplained artifacts

Evolution

Timeline: Human Evolution

Biggest Dinosaurs

The 10 Biggest Dinosaurs

Fossils 

Fossil Formation: How Do Fossils Form?
 

Book review

Dinosaurs Encyclopedia

Book Review

Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages ... WRITTEN BY A PROFESSIONAL paleontologist specifically for young readers, this guide to the Dinosauria is packed...