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Evolution

U.S. Civil War took bigger toll than previously estimated, new analysis suggests

1000pa (Sep. 21, 2011) — The Civil War -- already considered the deadliest conflict in American history -- in fact took a toll far more severe than previously estimated. That's what a new analysis of census data by Binghamton University historian J. David Hacker reveals.

Hacker says the war's dead numbered about 750,000, an estimate that's 20 percent higher than the commonly cited figure of 620,000. His findings will be published in...

1000pa (Sep. 21, 2011) — The Civil War -- already considered the deadliest conflict in American history -- in fact took a toll far more severe than previously estimated. That's what a new analysis of census data by Binghamton University historian J. David Hacker reveals.

Hacker says the war's dead...

Scientists discover rare theropod dinosaur wounded in action in southern Utah

1000pa (Sep. 19, 2011) — Raptor dinosaurs like the iconic Velociraptor from the movie franchise Jurassic Park are renowned for their "fear-factor." Their terrifying image has been popularized in part because members of this group possess a greatly enlarged talon on their foot -- analogous to a butcher's hook. Yet the function of the highly recurved claw on the foot of raptor dinosaurs has largely remained a mystery to paleontologists. This...

1000pa (Sep. 19, 2011) — Raptor dinosaurs like...

New technique fills gaps in fossil record

1000pa (Sep. 19, 2011) — University of Pennsylvania evolutionary biologists have resolved a long-standing paleontological problem by reconciling the fossil record of species diversity with modern DNA samples.

Cataloging the diversity of life on Earth is challenging enough, but when scientists attempt to draw a phylogeny -- the branching family tree of a group of species over their evolutionary history -- the challenge goes from merely...

1000pa (Sep. 19, 2011) — University of Pennsylvania...

Primitive birds shared dinosaurs' fate

1000pa (Sep. 19, 2011) — A new study puts an end to the longstanding debate about how archaic birds went extinct, suggesting they were virtually wiped out by the same meteorite impact that put an end to dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

For decades, scientists have debated whether birds from the Cretaceous period -- which are very different from today's modern bird species -- died out slowly or were killed suddenly by the Chicxulub meteorite....

1000pa (Sep. 19, 2011) — A new study puts an...

Newborn dinosaur discovered in Maryland: Youngest nodosaur ever discovered

1000pa (Sep. 14, 2011) — Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine with help from an amateur fossil hunter in College Park, Md., have described the fossil of an armored dinosaur hatchling. It is the youngest nodosaur ever discovered, and a founder of a new genus and species that lived approximately 110 million years ago during the Early Cretaceous Era. Nodosaurs have been found in diverse locations worldwide, but...

1000pa (Sep. 14, 2011) — Researchers at the Johns...

Fossil of an armored dinosaur hatchling: Youngest nodosaur ever discovered

1000pa (Sep. 14, 2011) — Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine with help from an amateur fossil hunter in College Park, Md., have described the fossil of an armored dinosaur hatchling. It is the youngest nodosaur ever discovered, and a founder of a new genus and species that lived approximately 110 million years ago during the Early Cretaceous Era. Nodosaurs have been found in diverse locations worldwide, but...

1000pa (Sep. 14, 2011) — Researchers at the Johns...

New species of ancient predatory fish discovered

1000pa (Sep. 12, 2011) — The Academy of Natural Sciences has announced the discovery of a new species of large predatory fish that prowled ancient North American waterways during the Devonian Period, before backboned animals existed on land.

Drs. Edward "Ted" Daeschler and Jason Downs of the Academy and colleagues from the University of Chicago and Harvard University describe the new denizen of the Devonian they named Laccognathus embryi in...

1000pa (Sep. 12, 2011) — The Academy of...

Evidence for a persistently iron-rich ocean changes views on Earth's early history

1000pa (Sep. 7, 2011) — Over the last half a billion years, the ocean has mostly been full of oxygen and teeming with animal life. But earlier, before animals had evolved, oxygen was harder to come by. Now a new study led by researchers at the University of California, Riverside reveals that the ancient deep ocean was not only devoid of oxygen but also rich in iron, a key biological nutrient, for nearly a billion years longer than...

1000pa (Sep. 7, 2011) — Over the last half a billion...

Woolly rhino fossil discovery in Tibet provides important clues to evolution of Ice Age giants

1000pa (Sep. 1, 2011) — A new paper published in the journal Science reveals the discovery of a primitive woolly rhino fossil in the Himalayas, which suggests some giant mammals first evolved in present-day Tibet before the beginning of the Ice Age. The extinction of Ice Age giants such as woolly mammoths and rhinos, giant sloths, and saber-tooth cats has been widely studied, but much less is known about where these giants came from, and...

1000pa (Sep. 1, 2011) — A new paper published in...

Ancient whale skulls and directional hearing: A twisted tale

1000pa (Aug. 22, 2011) — Skewed skulls may have helped early whales discriminate the direction of sounds in water and are not solely, as previously thought, a later adaptation related to echolocation.

University of Michigan researchers report the finding in a paper being published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Asymmetric skulls are a well-known characteristic of the modern whale group known as odontocetes...

1000pa (Aug. 22, 2011) — Skewed skulls may have...

Most primitive living eel discovered: Creating a new species, genus and family of animal

1000pa (Aug. 17, 2011) — Scientists at the Smithsonian and partnering organizations have discovered a remarkably primitive eel in a fringing reef off the coast of the Republic of Palau. This fish exhibits many primitive anatomical features unknown in the other 19 families and more than 800 species of living eels, resulting in its classification as a new species belonging to a new genus and family.

The team's research is published online in...

1000pa (Aug. 17, 2011) — Scientists at the...

Breathing new life into Earth: Evidence of early oxygen in the oceans of our planet

1000pa (Aug. 16, 2011) — Today, oxygen takes up a hefty portion of Earth's atmosphere: Life-sustaining O2 molecules make up 21 percent of the air we breathe. However, very early in Earth's history, O2 was a rare -- if not completely absent -- player in the turbulent mix of primordial gases. It wasn't until the "Great Oxidation Event" (GOE), nearly 2.3 billion years ago, when oxygen made any measurable dent in the atmosphere, stimulating...

1000pa (Aug. 16, 2011) — Today, oxygen takes up a...

Hidden soil fungus, now revealed, is in a class all its own

1000pa (Aug. 11, 2011) — A type of fungus that's been lurking underground for millions of years, previously known to science only through its DNA, has been cultured, photographed, named and assigned a place on the tree of life.

Researchers say it represents an entirely new class of fungi: the Archaeorhizomycetes. Like the discovery of a weird type of aquatic fungus that made headlines a few months ago, this finding offers a glimpse at the...

1000pa (Aug. 11, 2011) — A type of fungus...

What shapes a bone? Diet and genetics dictate adult jaw shape

1000pa (Aug. 5, 2011) — Researchers at Johns Hopkins found that use over time and not just genetics informs the structure of jaw bones in human populations. The researchers say these findings may be used to predict the diet of an ancient population, even if little evidence exists in the fossil record. It can also make it easier for scientists to pinpoint the genetic relationship between fossils.

Their results were published online June 23...

1000pa (Aug. 5, 2011) — Researchers at Johns...

Genetic evidence clears Ben Franklin: Invasive tree afflicting Gulf Coast was not brought to U.S. by famed statesman

1000pa (July 28, 2011) — The DNA evidence is in, and Ben Franklin didn't do it.

Genetic tests on more than 1,000 Chinese tallow trees from the United States and China show the famed U.S. statesman did not import the tallow trees that are overrunning thousands of acres of U.S. coastal prairie from Florida to East Texas.

"It's widely known that Franklin introduced tallow trees to the U.S. in the late 1700s," said Rice University biologist Evan...

1000pa (July 28, 2011) — The DNA evidence...

Mitochondria share an ancestor with SAR11, a globally significant marine microbe

1000pa (July 26, 2011) — Billions of years ago, an astounding evolutionary event occurred: certain bacteria became obliged to live inside other cells, thus starting a chain of events that resulted in what is now the mitochondria, an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. A recent study by researchers at the University of Hawaii -- Manoa (UHM) and the Oregon State University (OSU) provides strong evidence that mitochondria share a common...

1000pa (July 26, 2011) — Billions of years ago...

Last dinosaur before mass extinction discovered

1000pa (July 13, 2011) — A team of scientists has discovered the youngest dinosaur preserved in the fossil record before the catastrophic meteor impact 65 million years ago. The finding indicates that dinosaurs did not go extinct prior to the impact and provides further evidence as to whether the impact was in fact the cause of their extinction.

Researchers from Yale University discovered the fossilized horn of a ceratopsian -- likely a...

1000pa (July 13, 2011) — A team of scientists has...

Gray whales likely survived the Ice Ages by changing their diets

1000pa (July 7, 2011) — If ancient gray whale populations migrated and fed the same as today's whales, what happened during the Ice Ages, when their major feeding grounds disappeared? UC Berkeley and Smithsonian paleontologists argue that gray whales utilized a range of food sources in the past, including herring and krill, in addition to the benthic organisms they consume today. As a result, pre-whaling populations were two to four times...

1000pa (July 7, 2011) — If ancient gray whale...

Vertebrate jaw design locked early: Study on initial diversification of jaws sheds light on early vertebrate feeding ecology

1000pa (July 10, 2011) — More than 99 per cent of modern vertebrates (animals with a backbone, including humans) have jaws, yet 420 million years ago, jawless, toothless armour-plated fishes dominated the seas, lakes, and rivers. There were no vertebrates yet on land and the recently evolved jawed fishes were minor players in this alien world, some sporting unusual jaw shapes and structures that bear little physical resemblance to modern...

1000pa (July 10, 2011) — More than 99 per cent of...

The rise and rise of the flying reptiles: Pterosaurs not driven into extinction by birds, study reveals

1000pa (July 7, 2011) — Pterosaurs, flying reptiles from the time of the dinosaurs, were not driven to extinction by the birds, but in fact they continued to diversify and innovate for millions of years afterwards.

A new study by Katy Prentice, done as part of her undergraduate degree (MSci in Palaeontology and Evolution) at the University of Bristol, shows that the pterosaurs evolved in a most unusual way, becoming more and more...

1000pa (July 7, 2011) — Pterosaurs, flying reptiles from...

Unearthing the appearance of ancient animals: X-ray technique for determining fossil pigmentation patterns

1000pa (June 30, 2011) — An international team including University of Pennsylvania paleontologists is unearthing the appearance of ancient animals by using the world's most powerful X-rays. New research shows how trace metals in fossils can be used to determine the pigmentation patterns of creatures dead for more than a hundred million years.

The research was conducted by an international team working with Phillip Manning, an adjunct...

1000pa (June 30, 2011) — An international team...

First Bird

First Bird
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Unexplained artifacts

unexplained artifacts
The 10 most amazing unexplained artifacts

Evolution

Timeline: Human Evolution

Biggest Dinosaurs

The 10 Biggest Dinosaurs

Fossils 

Fossil Formation: How Do Fossils Form?
 

Book review

Dinosaurs Encyclopedia

Book Review

Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages ... WRITTEN BY A PROFESSIONAL paleontologist specifically for young readers, this guide to the Dinosauria is packed...